What do you mean by  SOA governance? What are the  functions of governance?

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) governance is a concept used for activities related to exercising control over services in an SOA

Some key activities that are often mentioned as being part of SOA governance are:

Managing the portfolio of services: This includes planning development of new services and updating current services.

Managing the service lifecycle: This is meant to ensure that updates of services do not disturb current services to the consumers.

Using policies to restrict behavior: Consistency of services can be ensured by having the rules applied to all the created services.

Monitoring performance of services: The consequences of service downtime or underperformance can be severe because of service composition. Therefore action can be taken instantly when a problem occurs by monitoring service performance and availability.

What are the common pitfalls of SOA ?

One of the most common pitfalls is to view SOA as an end, rather than a means to an end. Developers who focus on building an SOA solution rather than solving a specific business problem are more likely to create complex, unmanageable, and unnecessary interconnections between IT resources. Another common pitfall is to try to solve multiple problems at once, rather than solving small pieces of the problem. Taking a top-down approach starting with major organization-wide infrastructure investments often fails either to show results in a relevant timeframe or to offer a compelling return on investment.

What is the most important skill you need to adopt SOA ? technical or cultural ?

Surely cultural. SOA does require people to think of business and technology differently. Instead of thinking oftechnology first (e.g., If we implement this system, what kinds of things can we do with it?), practitioners must firstthink in terms of business functions, or services (e.g., My company does these business functions, so how can Iset up my IT system to do those things for me most efficiently?).It is expected that adoption of SOA will change business IT departments, creating service-oriented (instead of technology-oriented) IT organizations

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Is SOA really needed on your opinion?
SOA is not for everyone. While SOA delivers significant benefits and cost savings, SOA does require disciplined enforcement of centralized governance principals to be successful. For some organizations, the cost of developing and enforcing these principals may be higher than the benefits realized, and therefore not a sound initiative.